Evolutionary face-to-face 2D/2D bismuth-based heterojunction: The quest for sustainable photocatalytic applications

Di Sen Chong, Joel Jie Foo, Xin Quan Tan, Grayson Zhi Sheng Ling, Lling Lling Tan, Xingzhu Chen, Wee Jun Ong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The energy demand is rising with the global population each day. The rapid growth in the manufacturing and energy industries has hit an unhealthy mark, losing control over the emission of harmful substances. Photocatalysis is considered to be one of the sustainable technologies for addressing the aforementioned problems. Two-dimensional (2D) bismuth-based nanomaterials have attracted extensive attention stemming from their visible light absorption ability. Nevertheless, pristine materials suffer from a high charge recombination rate. Heterojunction engineering has proven to effectively improve the separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. Importantly, 2D bismuth-based materials have shown accelerated charge transfer mechanisms with the intimate face-to-face contact between nanostructures and a high adsorption rate as a result of the high surface-to-volume ratio that endows abundant active sites. Therefore, it is significant to elucidate the synergy effect between heterojunction and morphology engineering of bismuth-based photocatalysts. This review aims to discuss the progress of 2D/2D bismuth-based heterojunctions to provide critical insights into the fundamental reaction mechanism, synthesis of 2D bismuth photocatalyst, and advances of 2D/2D bismuth-based heterojunction photocatalysts in energy conversion and environmental remediation. Lastly, this review is anticipated to serve as a comprehensive work to evaluate the current challenges and future research direction of 2D/2D bismuth-based heterojunction photocatalysts.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101636
JournalApplied Materials Today
StatePublished - Sep 23 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-10-03
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) Malaysia under the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) (Ref no: FRGS/1/2020/TK0/XMU/02/1). The authors would also like to acknowledge the financial support provided by Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (Ref no: 2021A1515111019) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Ref. no. 22202168). This work is also funded by Xiamen University Malaysia Investigatorship Grant (Grant no: IENG/0038), Xiamen University Malaysia Research Fund (ICOE/0001, XMUMRF/2021-C8/IENG/0041 and XMUMRF/2019-C3/IENG/0013), and Hengyuan International Sdn. Bhd. (Grant no: EENG/0003).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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