Equilibrium distribution of water in the two-phase system supercritical carbon dioxide-textile

M. van der Kraan*, M. V. Fernandez Cid, G. F. Woerlee, W. J.T. Veugelers, C. J. Peters, G. J. Witkamp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


When natural fibres are dyed in supercritical carbon dioxide, the addition of a small amount of water increases coloration. For a process design it is important to know how much water has to be added to obtain a desired humidity of both textile and carbon dioxide. In this work a thermodynamic model is proposed to calculate the distribution of water over the textile phase and the supercritical phase as a function of pressure and temperature. The phase equilibrium is described with Raoult's law for non-ideal fluids. The absorbed water in the textile is a condensed phase and is modelled here as a non-ideal liquid, using the NRTL-equation. The non-ideality of the supercritical phase is described by a solubility enhancement factor, a new equation derived from statistical thermodynamics. Although the model is applied to cotton, viscose, silk and wool, it can be used for all water absorbing textiles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)336-343
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Supercritical Fluids
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon dioxide
  • Dyeing
  • Phase equilibria
  • Supercritical fluid
  • Textile
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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