Engineering Stable Lead-free Tin Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: Lessons from Materials Chemistry

Thomas J. Macdonald, Luis Alejandro Lanzetta, Xinxing Liang, Dong Ding, Saif A. Haque

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Substituting toxic lead with tin (Sn) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is the most promising route towards the development of high-efficiency lead-free devices. Despite the encouraging efficiencies of Sn-PSCs, they are still yet to surpass 15% and suffer detrimental oxidation of Sn(II) to Sn(IV). Since their first application in 2014, many investigations into the properties of Sn-PSCs have contributed to a growing understanding of the mechanisms, both detrimental and complementary to their stability. This review summarizes the evolution of Sn-PSCs, including early developments to the latest state-of-the-art approaches used to benefit the stability of devices. We first outline the degradation pathways associated with Sn-PSCs, followed by describing how composition engineering (A, B site modifications), additive engineering (oxidation prevention), and interface engineering (passivation strategies) can be employed as different avenues to improve the stability of devices. The knowledge about these properties is also not limited to PSCs and also applicable to other types of devices now employing Sn-based perovskite absorber layers. A detailed analysis of the properties and materials chemistry reveals a clear set of design rules for the development of stable Sn-PSCs. Applying the design strategies highlighted in this review will be essential to further improve both the efficiency and stability of Sn-PSCs.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2206684
JournalAdvanced Materials
StatePublished - Dec 2 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-12-07
Acknowledgements: S.A.H acknowledges financial support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC grant number EP/R020574/1). T.J.M thanks the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 for their financial support through a Research Fellowship.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanical Engineering


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