Energy Assessment of Seawater Toilet Flushing in Qatar

Hamish R. Mackey, Saad Hafiz, Sami G. Al Ghamdi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


Seawater toilet flushing (SWTF) is an alternative water source that has been utilised in Hong Kong for economical water supply and demonstrated using other Asian case studies. Yet how the impact of SWTF translates to other regions with different water supply sources and wastewater discharge requirements remains unexplored. In this study, we look at SWTF for the water-scarce Middle East using Doha, Qatar as a case study. We demonstrate the importance of wastewater discharge conditions on the effectiveness of this technology and the role that corresponding water conservation efforts may play. Where water reuse is a baseline condition the effectiveness of SWTF is limited.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGreen Energy and Technology
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9783319998664
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Generated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2023-02-14

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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