The unique optoelectronic properties of lead halide perovskites have triggered a new wave of excitement in materials chemistry during the past five years. Electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry could be viable tools both for analyzing the optoelectronic features of these materials and to assemble their hybrid architectures (e.g., solar cells). At the same time, the instability of these materials limits the pool of solvents and electrolytes that can be employed in such experiments. The focus of our study is to establish a stability window for electrochemical tests for all-inorganic CsPbBr3 and hybrid organic-inorganic MaPbI3 perovskites. In addition, we aimed to understand the reduction and oxidation events that occur and to assess the damage done during these processes at extreme electrochemical conditions. In this vein, we demonstrated the chemical, structural, and morphological changes of the films in both reductive and oxidative environments. Taking all these results together as a whole, we propose a set of boundary conditions and protocols for how electrochemical experiments with lead halide perovskites should be carried out and interpreted. We believe that the presented results will contribute to the understanding of the electrochemical response of these materials and lead to a standardization of results in the literature so that easier comparisons can be made.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OCRF-2014-CRG3-2268
Acknowledgements: The authors thank Dr. Tatyana Orlova for taking the SEM images, Steven M. Kobosko for recording the XPS spectra, and Dr. Allen G. Oliver for recording the XRD patterns. We thank the ND Energy Materials Characterization Facility (MCF) for the use of the PHI VersaProbe II system. The MCF is funded by the Sustainable Energy Initiative (SEI), which is part of the Center for Sustainable Energy at Notre Dame (ND Energy). This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No 716539). ELI-ALPS is supported by the European Union and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (GOP-1.1.1-12/B-2012-000, GINOP-2.3.6-15-2015-00001). The authors also thank Rendernet Ltd. for assistance in preparing the artwork in the TOC. PVK acknowledges the support of the by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy through award DE-FC02-04ER15533. Rebecca Scheidt acknowledges the support of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) through Award OCRF-2014-CRG3-2268. This is NDRL No 5190 from Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.