Effects of Multiple Injectors on Spray Characteristics and Efficiency in Internal Combustion Engines

Cristian David Ávila Jiménez, Gustav Nyrenstedt, Harsh Goyal, Arne Andersson, Hong G. Im, Bengt Johansson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Scopus citations


High-pressure internal combustion engines promise high efficiency, but a proper injection strategy to minimize heat losses and pollutant emissions remain a challenge. Previous studies have concluded that two injectors, placed at the piston bowl's rim, simultaneously improve the mixing and reduce the heat losses. The two-injector configuration further improves air utilization while keeping hot zones away from the cylinder walls. This study investigates how the two-injector concept delivers even higher efficiency by providing additional control of spray -and injection angles. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations examined several umbrella angles, spray-to-spray angles, and injection orientations by comparing the two-injector cases with a reference one-injector case. The study focused on heat transfer reduction, where the two-injector approach reduces the heat transfer losses by up to 14.3 % compared to the reference case. Finally, this study connected the two-injector approach to a waste-heat recovery system through GT-Power 1-D simulations, increasing the importance of heat transfer reduction. The final two-injector system then delivered a 54.4% brake thermal efficiency compared to 53% of the one-injector reference case.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSAE Technical Paper Series
PublisherSAE International
StatePublished - Apr 6 2021

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-05-06
Acknowledgements: This work was sponsored by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and supported by the KAUST Supercomputing Laboratory (KSL). All simulations were performed on KSL's Shaheen-II supercomputer using CONVERGE CFD software. Convergent Science provided CONVERGE licenses and technical support for this work.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Pollution
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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