Efaverinz and nano-gold-loaded mannosylated niosomes: a host cell-targeted topical HIV-1 prophylaxis via thermogel system

Tanushree Malik, Gaurav Chauhan, Goutam Rath, Rohan N. Kesarkar, Abhay S. Chowdhary, Amit K. Goyal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Sexual dissemination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) is the prime mode of its spread. Topical microbicidal approach has gained much attention, but no real success is observed till date, either due to toxicity or resistance of active moieties and the lack of efficient drug delivery approaches. In this research protocol, a unique combination approach of a standard drug moiety, that is, Efaverinz (EFV) and a nanometal, that is, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was tried. Both these candidates were delivered through a mannosylated niosomal system, to exploit protein (lectins present on HIV host cells)–carbohydrate (oligosaccharides such as mannan present on HIV gp-120 receptor) interaction. GNPs (10.4 nm average size) were entrapped inside the aqueous core, whereas lipophilic EFV was loaded in the bilayer membrane. Results demonstrated a significant increase in antiviral activity when EFV was fired with GNPs. Delivery of this combination via mannosylated niosomes proved to be a perfect approach with exceedingly well potential compared to non liganded niosomal system. A thermosensitive gel vehicle was prepared and the loaded niosomes were dispersed in it to have a nanogel system. The optimized formulation was evaluated for its prophylactic activity and the results showed completely inhibited viral dissemination at folds dilution levels.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-90
Number of pages12
JournalArtificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology
Issue numbersup1
StatePublished - Oct 31 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Generated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2023-10-12

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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