Dynamic changes of the Prf/Pto tomato resistance complex following effector recognition.

Arsheed Hussain Sheikh, Iosif Zacharia, Alonso J Pardal, Ana Dominguez-Ferreras, Daniela J Sueldo, Jung-Gun Kim, Alexi Balmuth, Jose R Gutierrez, Brendon F Conlan, Najeeb Ullah, Olivia M Nippe, Anil M Girija, Chih-Hang Wu, Guido Sessa, Alexandra M E Jones, Murray R Grant, Miriam L Gifford, Mary Beth Mudgett, John P Rathjen, Vardis Ntoukakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


In both plants and animals, nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors play critical roles in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. In plants, NLRs recognise pathogen-derived effector proteins and initiate effector-triggered immunity (ETI). However, the molecular mechanisms that link NLR-mediated effector recognition and downstream signalling are not fully understood. By exploiting the well-characterised tomato Prf/Pto NLR resistance complex, we identified the 14-3-3 proteins TFT1 and TFT3 as interacting partners of both the NLR complex and the protein kinase MAPKKKα. Moreover, we identified the helper NRC proteins (NLR-required for cell death) as integral components of the Prf /Pto NLR recognition complex. Notably our studies revealed that TFTs and NRCs interact with distinct modules of the NLR complex and, following effector recognition, dissociate facilitating downstream signalling. Thus, our data provide a mechanistic link between activation of immune receptors and initiation of downstream signalling cascades.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 4 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-05-08
Acknowledgements: We thank Professor Sophien Kamoun for critically reading the manuscript and for providing materials. We also thank all members of the Ntoukakis’ laboratory for fruitful discussions and helpful comments. This research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council grants (BB/L019345/1) awarded to V.N. and BB/V01627X/1 awarded to M.R.G. and V.N. I.Z, A.J.P. and O.M.N. were funded by the University of Warwick through the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Midlands Integrative Biosciences Training Partnership (BB/M01116X/1). N.U. was funded by the University of Warwick through the Chancellors’ International Scholarship scheme. A.D.-F. was supported by the BBSRC/EPSRC funded Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre (BB/M017982/1) awarded to V.N. G.S. was supported by United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation Grants 2011069 and 2015062. M.L.G. was supported by BBSRC grants BB/H109502/1 and BB/P002145/1. M.B.M was supported by United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation Grant 2015062 and National Science Foundation Grant IOS-2026368. V. N. is also supported by the Royal Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Chemistry
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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