Dyeing of natural and synthetic textiles in supercritical carbon dioxide with disperse reactive dyes

M. van der Kraan*, M. V. Fernandez Cid, G. F. Woerlee, W. J.T. Veugelers, G. J. Witkamp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

131 Scopus citations


Polyester, nylon, silk and wool were dyed with disperse reactive dyes in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The dyes were substituted with either vinylsulphone or dichlorotriazine reactive groups. Since earlier research showed that water, distributed over the scCO2 and the textile, increased the colouration, experiments were done with the vinylsulphone dye with varying amounts of water in the dyeing vessel, to investigate if there is an optimum water concentration. The amounts were such, that no liquid water was present. The maximum colouration was obtained when both the scCO2 and the textiles were saturated with water. At the saturation point, deep colours were obtained with the vinylsulphone dye for polyester, nylon, silk and wool, with fixation percentages between 70 and 92% when the dyeing time was 2 h. The positive effect of water was due to its ability to swell fibres or due to an effect of water on the reactivity of the dye-fibre system. Also the dichlorotriazine dye showed more colouration when the scCO2 was moist. With this dye, experiments were conducted in water-saturated scCO2, varying the pressure from 225 to 278 bar and the temperature from 100 to 116 °C. The colouration of polyester increased with pressure, the results for silk and wool were not sensitive to pressure. Increasing the temperature had no influence on the dyeing of polyester, silk and wool. The fixations on polyester, silk and wool, being between 71 and 97%, were also independent of pressure and temperature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)470-476
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Supercritical Fluids
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon dioxide
  • Dyeing
  • Protein fibres
  • Reactive disperse dyes
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Dyeing of natural and synthetic textiles in supercritical carbon dioxide with disperse reactive dyes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this