Downstream evolution of n-heptane/toluene flames in hot and vitiated coflows

Michael J. Evans, Paul R. Medwell, Zhiwei Sun, Alfonso Chinnici, Jingjing Ye, Qing N. Chan, Bassam B. Dally

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The scenario of fuel injected into hot surrounds is found in a range of practical combustion applications. These flame conditions have been emulated using a jet-in-hot-coflow-burner using prevaporised n-heptane and mixtures of n-heptane and toluene, relevant to gasoline and diesel fuel surrogates. This paper reports measurements of six lifted, turbulent flames, with a constant jet flow of a prevaporised fuel/N2 mixture at 380 K into various hot and vitiated coflow conditions. Five of these flames issued into coflows generated by the combustion of different mixtures of ethylene/air and one had a coflow from a natural gas/air flame. Two n-heptane/toluene fuel blends were also measured to study the effect of soot propensity. Gas sampling, non-linear excitation regime two-line atomic fluorescence (NTLAF) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) were used to characterise the flames, investigate the mixing between the hot coflow and the surrounding air, and measure the flame temperature for the different coflow configurations. A comparison of results of the flames issuing into hot coflows is presented, indicating that the hottest flame is not associated with the coflow containing the highest concentration of O2, but with the minimum soot loading and, consequently, the minimum radiative heat loss. Subsequent numerical simulations of canonical opposed-flow flames demonstrate that the soot loading in the downstream region of the flames is strongly dependent on PAH formation in the hot coflow region and further analyses reveal the chemical pathways which are most impacted by small variations in hot coflow composition.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-89
Number of pages12
JournalCombustion and Flame
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Generated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2022-09-12


Dive into the research topics of 'Downstream evolution of n-heptane/toluene flames in hot and vitiated coflows'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this