Double Robust Representation Learning for Counterfactual Prediction

Shuxi Zeng, Serge Assaad, Chenyang Tao, Shounak Datta, Lawrence Carin, Fan Li

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Causal inference, or counterfactual prediction, is central to decision making in healthcare, policy and social sciences. To de-bias causal estimators with high-dimensional data in observational studies, recent advances suggest the importance of combining machine learning models for both the propensity score and the outcome function. We propose a novel scalable method to learn double-robust representations for counterfactual predictions, leading to consistent causal estimation if the model for either the propensity score or the outcome, but not necessarily both, is correctly specified. Specifically, we use the entropy balancing method to learn the weights that minimize the Jensen-Shannon divergence of the representation between the treated and control groups, based on which we make robust and efficient counterfactual predictions for both individual and average treatment effects. We provide theoretical justifications for the proposed method. The algorithm shows competitive performance with the state-of-the-art on real world and synthetic data.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalArxiv preprint
StatePublished - Oct 15 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

18 pages, 5 figures, 2 Tables


  • stat.ML
  • cs.LG


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