Electronic doping in organic materials has remained an elusive concept for several decades. It drew considerable attention in the early days in the quest for organic materials with high electrical conductivity, paving the way for the pioneering work on pristine organic semiconductors (OSCs) and their eventual use in a plethora of applications. Despite this early trend, however, recent strides in the field of organic electronics have been made hand in hand with the development and use of dopants to the point that are now ubiquitous. Here, we give an overview of all important advances in the area of doping of organic semiconductors and their applications. We first review the relevant literature with particular focus on the physical processes involved, discussing established mechanisms but also newly proposed theories. We then continue with a comprehensive summary of the most widely studied dopants to date, placing particular emphasis on the chemical strategies toward the synthesis of molecules with improved functionality. The processing routes toward doped organic films and the important doping–processing–nanostructure relationships, are also discussed. We conclude the review by highlighting how doping can enhance the operating characteristics of various organic devices.
KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-11-23
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079, OSR-2019-CRG8-4095.3
Acknowledgements: This work was from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under award nos. OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079 and OSR-2019-CRG8-4095.3. F.A. acknowledges the support from The Wilkinson Charitable Foundation. C.M. acknowledges financial support from the Swedish Research Council (grant no. 2018-03824) and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation through a Wallenberg Academy Fellowship Prolongation grant.