Dithienopyrrole-quinoxaline/pyridopyrazine donor-acceptor polymers: Synthesis and electrochemical, optical, charge-transport, and photovoltaic properties

Xuan Zhang, Jae Won Shim, Shree Prakash Tiwari, Qing Zhang, Joseph E. Norton, Pei Tzu Wu, Stephen Barlow, Samson A. Jenekhe, Bernard Kippelen, Jean-Luc Bredas, Seth R. Marder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Soluble alternating copolymers of N-(3,4,5-tri-n-dodecyloxyphenyl) dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]pyrrole donor groups and 2,3-di-n- decylquinoxaline, 2,3-di-n-decylpyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine, 2,3,6,7-tetrakis(n- decyloxy)benzo[a,c]phenazine, or 2,3,6,7-tetrakis(n-decyloxy)dibenzo[f,h] pyrido[4,3-b]quinoxaline acceptors were synthesised using Stille coupling reactions. Experimental absorption maxima in THF range from 645 to 770 nm. These optical data, along with the results of quantum-chemical calculations and electrochemical measurements, show that, as expected, the pyridopyrazine moiety acts as a stronger acceptor than quinoxaline and that the extended species benzophenazine and dibenzopyridoquinoxaline are stronger acceptors than quinoxaline and pyridopyrazine, respectively. Modest average hole mobilities of up to ca. 3.0 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s -1 were obtained in field-effect transistors. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices made from blends of the benzo[a,c]phenazine-based polymer with 3′-phenyl-3′H-cyclopropa[1,9](C60-I h)[5,6]fullerene-3′-butanoic acid methyl ester (1:3 weight ratio) exhibited average power conversion efficiencies up to 1.4%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4971-4982
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry
Issue number13
StatePublished - Apr 7 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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