Dipole model explaining high-k /metal gate field effect transistor threshold voltage tuning

P. D. Kirsch*, P. Sivasubramani, J. Huang, C. D. Young, M. A. Quevedo-Lopez, H. C. Wen, Husam Niman Alshareef, K. Choi, C. S. Park, K. Freeman, Muhammad Mustafa Hussain, G. Bersuker, H. R. Harris, P. Majhi, R. Choi, P. Lysaght, B. H. Lee, H. H. Tseng, R. Jammy, T. S. BösckeD. J. Lichtenwalner, J. S. Jur, A. I. Kingon

*Corresponding author for this work

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An interface dipole model explaining threshold voltage (Vt) tuning in HfSiON gated n -channel field effect transistors (nFETs) is proposed. Vt tuning depends on rare earth (RE) type and diffusion in SiSi Ox HfSiON REOx /metal gated nFETs as follows: Sr<Er<Sc+Er<La<Sc<none. This Vt ordering is very similar to the trends in dopant electronegativity (EN) (dipole charge transfer) and ionic radius (r) (dipole separation) expected for a interfacial dipole mechanism. The resulting Vt dependence on RE dopant allows distinction between a dipole model (dependent on EN and r) and an oxygen vacancy model (dependent on valence).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number092901
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number9
StatePublished - Mar 14 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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