Dipole model explaining high-k /metal gate field effect transistor threshold voltage tuning

P. D. Kirsch*, P. Sivasubramani, J. Huang, C. D. Young, M. A. Quevedo-Lopez, H. C. Wen, H. Alshareef, K. Choi, C. S. Park, K. Freeman, M. M. Hussain, G. Bersuker, H. R. Harris, P. Majhi, R. Choi, P. Lysaght, B. H. Lee, H. H. Tseng, R. Jammy, T. S. BösckeD. J. Lichtenwalner, J. S. Jur, A. I. Kingon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

181 Scopus citations


An interface dipole model explaining threshold voltage (Vt) tuning in HfSiON gated n -channel field effect transistors (nFETs) is proposed. Vt tuning depends on rare earth (RE) type and diffusion in SiSi Ox HfSiON REOx /metal gated nFETs as follows: Sr<Er<Sc+Er<La<Sc<none. This Vt ordering is very similar to the trends in dopant electronegativity (EN) (dipole charge transfer) and ionic radius (r) (dipole separation) expected for a interfacial dipole mechanism. The resulting Vt dependence on RE dopant allows distinction between a dipole model (dependent on EN and r) and an oxygen vacancy model (dependent on valence).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number092901
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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