Dextrosil-Viologen: A Robust and Sustainable Anolyte for Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries

Xiu-Liang Lv, Patrick Sullivan, Hui-Chun Fu, XuanXin Hu, Honghao Liu, Song Jin, Wenjie Li, Dawei Feng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Aqueous organic redox flow batteries (RFBs) are promising for grid-scale energy storage. However, identifying stable and inexpensive organic redox couples suitable for practical applications has been challenging. Herein, we report a robust anolyte species, dextrosil-viologen (Dex-Vi), that demonstrates record overall RFB performance for anolyte redox species in neutral aqueous media, including ultralow anion-exchange membrane permeability, high volumetric capacity capability, and outstanding chemical stability. Remarkably, at a high concentration of 1.5 M (40.2 Ah·L–1 theoretical anolyte volumetric capacity), Dex-Vi shows extremely stable cycling performance without observable capacity decay over one month of cycling. We present a high-yield hydrothermal synthetic approach for this viologen chloride salt with a low-cost precursor. These results not only establish a new benchmark organic anolyte species that is promising for practical RFB applications but also show that the properties of organic redox species can be enhanced with minute performance trade-offs through rationalized structural and synthetic design.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2428-2434
Number of pages7
JournalACS Energy Letters
StatePublished - Jul 5 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-09-14
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-2017-CRG6-3453.02
Acknowledgements: D.F. acknowledges the start-up funds from the University of Wisconsin─Madison. P.S. acknowledges the support from Vice Chancellor for Research and Graduate Education (VCRGE) via 1975XX-135-AAI2755. S.J., W.L., and H.-C.F. acknowledge the support from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No. OSR-2017-CRG6-3453.02. The authors thank Prof. P. Gopalan for assistance with UV–vis measurement, Prof. S. Stahl for access to the N2 glovebox, I. Guzei for assistance with data collection of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and Zhiao Yu (Stanford University) for viscosity measurement. The Bruker Quazar APEX2 was purchased by UW–Madison Department of Chemistry with a portion of a generous gift from Paul J. and Margaret M. Bender.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.


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