Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been extensively investigated as scaffolds for tissue engineering, as drug delivery agents, as non-viral gene carriers, as prosthetic coatings, and composites. Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrated the immunoadjuvant properties of HA when administered with malarial merozoite surface protein-119 (MSP-119). HA nanoceramic carrier was prepared by co-precipitation method that comprises of sintering and spray-drying technique. Prepared systems were characterized for crystallinity, size, shape, and antigen loading efficiency. Small size and large surface area of prepared HA demonstrated good adsorption efficiency of immunogens. Prepared nanoceramic formulations also showed slower in vitro antigen release and slower biodegrability behavior, which may lead to a prolonged exposure to antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes. Furthermore, addition of mannose in nanoceramic formulation may additionally lead to increased stability and immunological reactions. Immunization with MSP-119 in nanoceramic-based adjuvant systems induced a vigorous immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, with higher IgG2a than IgG1 titers. In addition considerable amount of IFN-g and IL-2 was observed in spleen cells of mice immunized with nanoceramic-based vaccines. On the contrary, mice immunized with MSP-119 alone or with alum did not exhibit a significant cytotoxic response. The antibody responses to vaccine co-administered with HA was a mixed Th1/Th2 compared to the Th2-biased response obtained with alum. The prepared HA nanoparticles exhibit physicochemical properties that appear promising to make them a suitable immunoadjuvant to be used as antigen carriers for immunopotentiation. © The Author(s), 2009.
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ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering