Detonation peninsula of different stoichiometric ammonia/hydrogen/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

Jiabo Zhang, Minh Bau Luong, Hong G. Im

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study numerically investigates the detonation development of carbon-free fuels, namely ammonia and hydrogen (NH3 and H2), using one-dimensional (1D) simulations under the end-gas autoignitive conditions relevant to internal combustion (IC) engines. Five stoichiometric NH3/H2/air mixtures with different NH3/H2 blending ratios are studied. A 1D hot spot with varied lengths and temperature gradients is used to induce different ignition modes. The detonation peninsulas are quantitatively identified by two non-dimensional parameters, namely the resonance parameter, ξ, and the reactivity parameter, ε. Increasing the H2 blending ratio up to 80% results in a unique horn-shaped detonation peninsula, i.e., the magnitude of the upper and lower ξ limits, ξu,l, near the leftmost boundaries of the detonation peninsula of the rich-H2 mixtures becomes larger by an order of magnitude as compared to those of the lean-H2 mixtures. Such behavior is attributed primarily to the large heat diffusion of hydrogen, leading to rapid heat dissipation of the hot spot and the significantly decreased transient ξ over time, thus promoting detonation development. The analysis reveals that the characterization of detonation propensity in the rich-H2 mixtures needs to account for the fast heat diffusion of the initial hot spot, in which the initial magnitude of ξ is not representative of its detonability. As such, a correction factor, β, weighted by the ignition Damköhler number, is proposed to resolve the discrepancy of the ξu,l limits between different NH3/H2/air mixtures. With this correction, the transient magnitudes of ξ, ξt, prior to the main ignition are well predicted such that a unified shape of the detonation peninsula for different NH3/H2/air mixture compositions is achieved.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)112793
JournalCombustion and Flame
StatePublished - May 1 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-05-08
Acknowledgements: This work was sponsored by the research funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. This research used the resources of the KAUST Supercomputing Laboratory (KSL).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Chemistry
  • Fuel Technology


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