Determination of the metastable ice zone for a sodium sulphate system

D. G. Randall*, J. Nathoo, F. E. Genceli-Güner, H. J.M. Kramer, G. J. Witkamp, A. E. Lewis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The crystallisation of ice from a 1. wt% sodium sulphate solution was investigated at different cooling rates and solution volumes in order to determine the metastable zone (MSZ) for the system. The results from this study showed that there was a large variation in nucleation temperatures, thus confirming the stochastic nature of nucleation. The results also showed that the width of the MSZ was independent of solution volumes greater than 250. mL. The nucleation temperatures for smaller solution volumes showed a greater spread than the larger solution volumes. The smallest MSZW for a 1. wt% sodium sulphate solution (1.8. mL volume) was 2.6 °C for a cooling rate of 2 °C/h, 2.8 °C for a cooling rate of 4 °C/h and 4.8 °C for a cooling rate of 8 °C/h.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-188
Number of pages5
StatePublished - Jul 30 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Crystallisation
  • Kinetics
  • Metastable zone width
  • Nucleation
  • Sodium sulphate
  • Thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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