Design Rules for Addressing Material Asymmetry Induced by Templated Epitaxy for Integrated Heteroepitaxial On-Chip Light Sources

Chen Shang*, Eamonn T. Hughes, Matthew R. Begley, Rosalyn Koscica, Marc Fouchier, Kaiyin Feng, William He, Yating Wan, Gerald Leake, Peter Ludewig, John E. Bowers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Integrating quantum dot (QD) gain elements onto Si photonic platforms via direct epitaxial growth is the ultimate solution for realizing on-chip light sources. Tremendous improvements in device performance and reliability have been demonstrated in devices grown on planar Si substrates in the last few years. Recently, electrically pumped QD lasers deposited in narrow oxide pockets in a butt-coupled configuration and on-chip coupling have been realized on patterned Si photonic wafers. However, the device yield and reliability, which ultimately determines the scalability of such technology, are limited by material uniformity. Here, detailed analysis is performed, both experimentally and theoretically, on the material asymmetry induced by the pocket geometry and provides unambiguous evidence suggesting that all pockets should be aligned to the [1 (Formula presented.)] direction of the III-V crystal for high yield, high performance, and scalable on-chip light sources at 300 mm scale.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2304645
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number45
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Prof. Chris Palmstrom for the fruitful discussions on crystal orientations. This material is based on research sponsored by the DARPA MTO LUMOS program under contract 442650–59747 and by Air Force Research Laboratory under agreement number FA8650‐21‐2‐1000. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, by DARPA of the United States Air Force, the Air Force Research Laboratory, or the U.S. Government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • device reliability
  • heteroepitaxy
  • monolithic integration
  • quantum dot laser on Si
  • Si photonics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biomaterials
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrochemistry


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