The integration of renewable energy sources (RES) is rapidly increasing in electric power systems (EPS). While the inclusion of intermittent RES coupled with the wide-scale deployment of communication and sensing devices is important towards a fully smart grid, it has also expanded the cyber-threat landscape, effectively making power systems vulnerable to cyberattacks. This article proposes a cybersecurity assessment approach designed to assess the cyberphysical security of EPS. The work takes into consideration the intermittent generation of RES, vulnerabilities introduced by microprocessor-based electronic information and operational technology (IT/OT) devices, and contingency analysis results. The proposed approach utilizes deep reinforcement learning (DRL) and an adapted Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) score tailored to assess vulnerabilities in EPS in order to identify the optimal attack transition policy based on N-2 contingency results, i.e., the simultaneous failure of two system elements. The effectiveness of the work is validated via numerical and real-time simulation experiments performed on literature-based power grid test cases. The results demonstrate how the proposed method based on deep Q-network (DQN) performs closely to a graph-search approach in terms of the number of transitions needed to find the optimal attack policy, without the need for full observation of the system. In addition, the experiments present the method's scalability by showcasing the number of transitions needed to find the optimal attack transition policy in a large system such as the Polish 2383 bus test system. The results exhibit how the proposed approach requires one order of magnitude fewer transitions when compared to a random transition policy.
Bibliographical noteGenerated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2022-09-13
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science(all)
- Materials Science(all)