Dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation and reprogramming: Three routes to regeneration

Chris Jopling, Stephanie Boue, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

518 Scopus citations


The ultimate goal of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged cells. This can potentially be accomplished using the processes of dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation or reprogramming. Recent advances have shown that the addition of a group of genes can not only restore pluripotency in a fully differentiated cell state (reprogramming) but can also induce the cell to proliferate (dedifferentiation) or even switch to another cell type (transdifferentiation). Current research aims to understand how these processes work and to eventually harness them for use in regenerative medicine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-89
Number of pages11
JournalNature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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