Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

Humberto M. Foronda, Alexey E. Romanov, Erin C. Young, Christian A. Roberston, Glenn E. Beltz, James S. Speck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substrates as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)035104
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 19 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-06-01
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the King Abduallah Center for Science and Technology and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KACST/KAUST) as well as the Materials Research Laboratory and California Nanosystems Institute at UC Santa Barbara for providing access and training to their laboratories. A.E.R. got the support for the conducting theoretical part of this study from Russian Science Foundation Project No. 14-29-00086.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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