Current insights and molecular docking studies of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Ankit Kumar Singh, Adarsh Kumar, Sahil Arora, Raj Kumar, Amita Verma, Habibullah Khalilullah, Mariusz Jaremko, Abdul Hamid Emwas, Pradeep Kumar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a lethal disease that is prevalent worldwide. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) data, 38.4 million people worldwide were living with HIV in 2021. Viral reverse transcriptase (RT) is an excellent target for drug intervention. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were the first class of approved antiretroviral drugs. Later, a new type of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were approved as anti-HIV drugs. Zidovudine, didanosine, and stavudine are FDA-approved NRTIs, while nevirapine, efavirenz, and delavirdine are FDA-approved NNRTIs. Several agents are in clinical trials, including apricitabine, racivir, elvucitabine, doravirine, dapivirine, and elsulfavirine. This review addresses HIV-1 structure, replication cycle, reverse transcription, and HIV drug targets. This study focuses on NRTIs and NNRTIs, their binding sites, mechanisms of action, FDA-approved drugs and drugs in clinical trials, their resistance and adverse effects, their molecular docking studies, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere14372
JournalChemical Biology and Drug Design
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • AIDS
  • HIV
  • NRTI
  • RT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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