Creep, stress relaxation, and plastic deformation in Sn-Ag and Sn-Zn eutectic solders

H. Mavoori*, J. Chin, S. Vaynman, B. Moran, L. Keer, M. Fine

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

229 Scopus citations


Because of the high homologous operation temperature of solders used in electronic devices, time and temperature dependent relaxation and creep processes affect their mechanical behavior. In this paper, two eutectic lead-free solders (96.5Sn-3.5Ag and 91Sn-9Zn) are investigated for their creep and stress relaxation behavior. The creep tests were done in load-control with initial stresses in the range of 10-22 MPa at two temperatures, 25 and 80°C. The stress relaxation tests were performed under constant-strain conditions with strains in the range of 0.3-2.4% and at 25 and 80°C. Since creep/relaxation processes are active even during monotonic tensile tests at ambient temperatures, stress-strain curves at different temperatures and strain rates provide insight into these processes. Activation energies obtained from the monotonic tensile, stress relaxation, and creep tests are compared and discussed in light of the governing mechanisms. These data along with creep exponents, strain rate sensitivities and damage mechanisms are useful for aiding the modeling of solder interconnects for reliability and lifetime prediction. Constitutive modeling for creep and stress relaxation behavior was done using a formulation based on unified creep plasticity theory which has been previously employed in the modeling of high temperature superalloys with satisfactory results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)783-790
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Constitutive modeling
  • Creep
  • Sn-Ag eutectic
  • Sn-Zn eutectic
  • Solders
  • Stress relaxation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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