Promoter (Cr, Mo and W) modified Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts were explored in the vapor phase conversion of γ-valerolactone (GVL) to ethyl valerate (EV; gasoline blender) at atmospheric pressure. Among the three different promoters (Cr, Mo and W) tested the Mo-modified catalyst was found to be the best candidate. In addition, this catalyst was found to be stable up to 50 h reaction time with an insignificant decrease in activity. The good catalytic performance is related to an optimal ratio of acid and hydrogenation functions provided by Ni2+ and Ni0, respectively. In situ FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed a strong adsorption of GVL on all catalysts which quickly reacts with dosed ethanol by formation of EV, most pronounced on the Mo-modified catalyst, while VA was identified as side product. These findings suggest the preferred GVL ring opening by cracking the C−O bond on the methyl side of the GVL molecule on this type of catalysts leading to pentenoic acid as intermediate, which is quickly hydrogenated and esterified.
Bibliographical noteGenerated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2023-10-23
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry