Control of electronic properties of 2D carbides (MXenes) by manipulating their transition metal layers

Babak Anasori, Chenyang Shi, Eun Ju Moon, Yu Xie, Cooper A. Voigt, Paul R. C. Kent, Steven J. May, Simon J. L. Billinge, Michel W. Barsoum, Yury Gogotsi

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414 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study, a transition from metallic to semiconducting-like behavior has been demonstrated in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides by replacing titanium with molybdenum in the outer transition metal (M) layers of M3C2 and M4C3 MXenes. The MXene structure consists of n + 1 layers of near-close packed M layers with C or N occupying the octahedral site between them in an [MX]nM arrangement. Recently, two new families of ordered 2D double transition metal carbides MXenes were discovered, M′2M′′C2 and M′2M′′2C3 – where M′ and M′′ are two different early transition metals, such as Mo, Cr, Ta, Nb, V, and Ti. The M′ atoms only occupy the outer layers and the M′′ atoms fill the middle layers. In other words, M′ atomic layers sandwich the middle M′′–C layers. Using X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis on Mo2TiC2 and Mo2Ti2C3 MXenes, we present the first quantitative analysis of structures of these novel materials and experimentally confirm that Mo atoms are in the outer layers of the [MC]nM structures. The electronic properties of these Mo-containing MXenes are compared with their Ti3C2 counterparts, and are found to be no longer metallic-like conductors; instead the resistance increases mildly with decreasing temperatures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that OH terminated Mo–Ti MXenes are semiconductors with narrow band gaps. Measurements of the temperature dependencies of conductivities and magnetoresistances have confirmed that Mo2TiC2Tx exhibits semiconductor-like transport behavior, while Ti3C2Tx is a metal. This finding opens new avenues for the control of the electronic and optical applications of MXenes and for exploring new applications, in which semiconducting properties are required.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-234
Number of pages8
JournalNanoscale Horiz.
Volume1
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: All authors are grateful to Dr Eric Dooryhee, Brookhaven National Laboratory, for experimental help and to NSLS-II for granting beam time at the XPD beamline. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704. BA was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)-Drexel University Competitive Research Grant (CRG 3). Work in the Billinge group was supported by US National Science Foundation through grant DMR-1534910. EJM and SJM were supported by the Army Research Office under grant number W911NF-15-1-0133. DFT (YX, PRCK) were supported as part of the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Center, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.

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