Combinatorial study of NaF addition in CIGSe films for high efficiency solar cells

Jessica Eid, Haifan Liang, Issam Gereige, Sang Lee, Jeroen K J Van Duren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


We report on a sodium fluoride (NaF) thickness variation study for the H2Se batch furnace selenization of sputtered Cu(In,Ga) films in a wide range of Cu(In,Ga) film compositions to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) films and solar cells. Literature review indicates lack of consensus on the mechanisms involved in Na altering CIGSe film properties. In this work, for sputtered and batch-selenized CIGSe, NaF addition results in reduced gallium content and an increase in grain size for the top portion of the CIGSe film, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The addition of up to 20nm of NaF resulted in an improvement in all relevant device parameters: open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor. The best results were found for 15nm NaF addition, resulting in solar cells with 16.0% active-area efficiency (without anti-reflective coating) at open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 674mV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-280
Number of pages12
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 4 2013

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


Dive into the research topics of 'Combinatorial study of NaF addition in CIGSe films for high efficiency solar cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this