We have characterized a human genomic clone carrying two pseudogenes for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which were tandemly arranged on human Chromosome (Chr) 4. One is a processed pseudogene that showed a 73% nucleotide homology to the human PCNA cDNA and possessed none of the introns existing in the functional PCNA gene. This pseudogene presumably arose by reverse transcription of a PCNA mRNA followed by integration of the cDNA into the genome. The other is a 5′ and 3′ truncated pseudogene that showed a nucleotide homology to a 3′ region of the exon 4 and to a 5′ region of the exon 5 of the PCNA gene and did not have the intronic sequence between the exons 4 and 5. Both pseudogenes had the same nucleotide deletion as compared with the human functional PCNA gene. A phylogenetic analysis of PCNA gene family, including the functional PCNA gene and another PCNA pseudogene located on a different chromosome, revealed that the truncated pseudogene exhibits the closest evolutionary relationship with the processed pseudogene, suggesting that the truncated pseudogene was generated by duplication of the processed pseudogene after translocation to Chr 4. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these pseudogenes are located on the long arm of Chr 4, 4q24.
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