ChromoEnhancer: An Artificial-Intelligence-Based Tool to Enhance Neoplastic Karyograms as an Aid for Effective Analysis

Yahya Bokhari, Areej Alhareeri, Abdulrhman Aljouie, Aziza Alkhaldi, Mamoon Rashid, Mohammed Alawad, Raghad Alhassnan, Saad Samargandy, Aliakbar Panahi, Wolfgang Heidrich, Tomasz Arodz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Cytogenetics laboratory tests are among the most important procedures for the diagnosis of genetic diseases, especially in the area of hematological malignancies. Manual chromosomal karyotyping methods are time consuming and labor intensive and, hence, expensive. Therefore, to alleviate the process of analysis, several attempts have been made to enhance karyograms. The current chromosomal image enhancement is based on classical image processing. This approach has its limitations, one of which is that it has a mandatory application to all chromosomes, where customized application to each chromosome is ideal. Moreover, each chromosome needs a different level of enhancement, depending on whether a given area is from the chromosome itself or it is just an artifact from staining. The analysis of poor-quality karyograms, which is a difficulty faced often in preparations from cancer samples, is time consuming and might result in missing the abnormality or difficulty in reporting the exact breakpoint within the chromosome. We developed ChromoEnhancer, a novel artificial-intelligence-based method to enhance neoplastic karyogram images. The method is based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) with a data-centric approach. GANs are known for the conversion of one image domain to another. We used GANs to convert poor-quality karyograms into good-quality images. Our method of karyogram enhancement led to robust routine cytogenetic analysis and, therefore, to accurate detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities. To evaluate ChromoEnahancer, we randomly assigned a subset of the enhanced images and their corresponding original (unenhanced) images to two independent cytogeneticists to measure the karyogram quality and the elapsed time to complete the analysis, using four rating criteria, each scaled from 1 to 5. Furthermore, we compared the enhanced images with our method to the original ones, using quantitative measures (PSNR and SSIM metrics).
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2244
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 20 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-09-14
Acknowledgements: This research was funded by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), grant number RC20/503/R. I would like to express my special thanks to the two cytogeneticists. Dina Homam and Salman Saud AlSaad, who volunteered to analyze the karyograms for our study.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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