This paper presents temperature measurements in turbulent dilute and dense spray flames using single-laser-shot chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CPP-fs-CARS). This ultrafast technique, with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, is applied to the piloted Sydney Needle Spray Burner (SYNSBURNTM). The burner system features air-blast atomization of liquid injected from a needle that can be translated within a co-flowing air stream. The pilot-stabilized spray flames can range between the two extremes of dense and dilute by physically translating the needle tip relative to the burner's exit plane. The CPP-fs-CARS set-up has achieved integration times of 3 picoseconds (ps) as well as spatial resolution of approximately 800 µm along beam propagation and 60 µm in the transverse dimension. Brief details of the technique, calibration, correction of interferences, and spectral fitting processes are presented along with estimates of the associated error. The measurements are compared against well-established, line Raman–Rayleigh data for temperature collected in a turbulent CH4/air jet diffusion flame, which is largely non-sooting. At peak gaseous flame temperatures of up to 2512 K, the relative accuracy and precision were 2.8% and ±3.4%, respectively. Measurements in turbulent spray flames are shown after applying the relevant corrections based on non-resonant background (NRB) behavior and camera saturation effects on the shape of the CARS signal spectrum. Preliminary mapping of the temperature fields demonstrates the wealth of information available in this dataset which will provide insights into the spatio-temporal structure of spray flames once relevant statistical analysis is applied.