Characteristics of propagating tribrachial flames in counterflow

Young Sung Ko, Tae Man Chung, Suk Ho Chung*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The effect of fuel concentration gradient on the propagation characteristics of tribrachial (or triple) flames has been investigated experimentally in both two-dimensional and axisymmetric counterflows. The gradient at the stoichiometric location was controlled by the equivalence ratios at the two nozzles; one of which is maintained rich, while the other lean. Results show that the displacement speed of tribrachial flames in the two-dimensional counterflow decreases with fuel concentration gradient and has much larger speed than the maximum speed predicted previously in two-dimensional mixing layers. From an analogy with premixed flame propagation, this excessively large displacement speed can be attributed to the flame propagation with respect to burnt gas. Corresponding maximum speed in the limit of small mixture fraction gradient was estimated and the curvefit of the experimental data substantiates this limiting speed. As mixture fraction gradient approaches zero, a transition occurs, such that the propagation speed of tribrachial flame approaches stoichiometric laminar burning velocity with respect to burnt gas. Similar results have been obtained for tribrachial flames propagating in axisymmetric counterflow.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1710-1718
Number of pages9
JournalKSME International Journal
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002


  • Counterflow
  • Propagation Speed
  • Tribrachial Flame

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering


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