Carbon-based nanomaterial synthesis using nanosecond electrical discharges in immiscible layered liquids: $\textit{n}$-heptane and water

Ahmad Hamdan, Min Suk Cha

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12 Scopus citations


Plasmas in- or in-contact with liquids have been extensively investigated due to their high potential for a wide range of applications including but not limited to, water treatment, material synthesis and functionalization, bio-medical applications, and liquid fuel reformation. Recently, we successfully developed a discharge using two immiscible liquids, having very different electrical permittivities, which could significantly intensify the electric field intensity. Here, we establish nanosecond discharges at the interface n-heptane-water (with respective relative dielectric permittivities of 2 and 80) to enable the synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials. A characterization of the as-synthesized material and the annealed (500 °C) material, using various techniques (Fourier-Transform, Infra-Red, Scanning and Transmission electron microscopes, etc.), shows that the as-synthesized material is a mixture of two carbon-based phases: a crystalline phase (graphite like) embedded into a phase of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. The existence of two-phases may be explained by the non-homogeneity of the discharge that induces various chemical reactions in the plasma channel.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244003
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number24
StatePublished - May 24 2018

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): BAS/1/1384-01-01
Acknowledgements: The research reported in this publication was supported by funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), under award number BAS/1/1384-01-01


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