Burden of thyroid cancer in North Africa and Middle East 1990–2019

Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Sina Azadnajafabad, Negar Rezaei, Nazila Rezaei, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Hamidreza Jamshidi, Ali H. Mokdad, Mohsen Naghavi, Farshad Farzadfar, Bagher Larijani, GBD 2019 NAME Thyroid Cancer Collaborators, Paula Moraga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Thyroid cancer is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among cancers of the endocrine system. We aimed to describe the trends of thyroid cancer burden in North Africa and Middle East for 1990–2019. Methods: Data on burden of thyroid cancer in North Africa and Middle East from 1990 to 2019 were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019. Decomposition analysis was used to estimate the effects of population growth, aging, and change in incident numbers on overall change of thyroid cancer incidence. Also, we used the comparative risk assessment framework of GBD to determine the burden of thyroid cancer attributable to a high body mass index (BMI). Results: In 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of thyroid cancer were 3.5 (2.9–4) and 0.5 (0.5–0.7) per 100,000, respectively. The highest age-standardized incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate were in Lebanon, Afghanistan, and United Arab Emirates, respectively. The ASIR of thyroid cancer in region was about 2.5 times higher among women, which had a positive association with increasing age. In 2019, the age-standardized deaths attributable to a high BMI was 16.7% of all deaths due to thyroid cancer. In 1990–2019, the overall change in thyroid cancer incident cases was a 396% increase which was mostly driven by the increase in disease-specific incidence rate (256.8%). Conclusions: Women, the elderly above about 60 years old, and countries with a higher sociodemographic index showed higher incidence rates of thyroid cancer. Regarding our findings, it is recommended to establish preventive plans by modification in life style like weight reduction programs.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
StatePublished - Sep 23 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-12-15
Acknowledgements: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, who were not involved in any way in the preparation of this manuscript, funded the GBD study. We would like to thank the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation staff and its collaborators who prepared these publicly available data. Z Piracha and U Saeed would like to acknowledge the support of the International Center of Medical Sciences Research, Islamabad (44000), Pakistan. A M Samy acknowledges the support from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program and being a member of the Egyptian Young Academy of Sciences.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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