Brain Waves Spectral Analysis of Human Responses to Odorous and Non-Odorous Substances: A Preliminary Study.

Xiao Hong Chow, Chee-Ming Ting, Aneeza Khairiyah Wan Hamizan, Farah Dayana Zahedi, Hui Jan Tan, Rabani Remli, Ching Soong Khoo, Hernando Ombao, Siti Zaleha Sahibulddin, Salina Husain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the potential electrophysiological biomarkers of human responses by comparing the electroencephalogram (EEG) brain wave changes toward lavender versus normal saline in a healthy human population. Methods: This study included a total of 44 subjects without subjective olfactory disturbances. Lavender and normal saline were used as the olfactory stimulant and control. EEG was recorded and power spectra were analysed by the spectral analysis for each alpha, beta, delta, theta and gamma bandwidth frequency upon exposure to lavender and normal saline independently. Results: The oscillatory brain activities in response to the olfactory stimulant indicated that the lavender smell decreased the beta activity in the left frontal (F7 electrode) and central region (C3 electrode) with a reduction in the gamma activity in the right parietal region (P4 electrode) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Olfactory stimulants result in the changes of the electrical brain activities at different brain regions, as evidenced by the topographical brain map and spectra analysis of each brain wave.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalThe Journal of laryngology and otology
StatePublished - Jun 1 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-06-05
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. A financial research grant was provided by the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (Project code: AZ19-76). The authors would like to thank Tan Lee Hui and Evelyn Tan Hui Ru, who contributed to the EEG spectral analysis. We would also like to gratefully acknowledge the volunteers for their participations in the study.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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