Bottom electrodes for integrated Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films

Philip D. Hren, S. H. Rou, H. N. Al-Shareef, M. S. Ameen, O. Auciello, A. I. Kingon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Lower electrodes for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) used in ferroelectric random access memories must have good electrical conductivity and must interact as little as possible with the PZT film. We have evaluated a number of bottom electrodes for use with PZT films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition These electrodes include Pt, Pt/Ti, RuO2, ReOP3, and C0Si2/Si3N4, all on SiO2/Si; and TiN and Pt on MgO. Films were studied by XTEM, Auger depth profiling, X-ray microanalysis, and XRD. Important issues for platinum include: a) microstructure (porous for magnetron sputtered Pt); b) rapid lead diffusion through porous Pt; c) adhesion (improved by raising deposition temperature or by adding a titanium layer); and d) hillock formation (related to compressive stress in platinum). RuO2 has good conductivity and has no apparent interfacial layer with PZT. Each of the remaining substrates has drawbacks: CoSi2 forms a surface oxide; ReO3 has poor phase stability; TiN oxidizes and loses conductivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-325
Number of pages15
JournalIntegrated Ferroelectrics
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - Nov 1992
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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