Bimolecular crystals with an intercalated structure improve poly(p-phenylenevinylene)-based organic photovoltaic cells

Kyung Geun Lim, Jun Mo Park, Hannah Mangold, Frédéric Laquai, Tae Lim Choi, Tae Woo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The exciton dissociation, recombination, and charge transport of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) is influenced strongly by the nanomorphology of the blend, such as the grain size and the molecular packing. Although it is well known that polymers based on amorphous poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) have a fundamental limit to their efficiency because of low carrier mobility, which leads to increased recombination and unbalanced charge extraction, herein, we demonstrate that the issue can be overcome by forming bimolecular crystals of an amorphous PPV-based polymer:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) intercalated structure. We used amorphous poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene-alt-2 ',5'-thienylene vinylene) (PPVTV), which has a simple chemical structure. A reasonably high power conversion efficiency (∼ 3.5%) was obtained, although the material has an intrinsically amorphous structure and a relatively large band gap (2.0 eV). We demonstrate a correlation between a well-ordered bimolecular crystal of PPVTV:PCBM and an improved hole mobility of a PPVTV:PCBM film compared to a pristine PPVTV film by using 2D grazing incidence XRD and space-charge-limited current measurements. Furthermore, we show that the bimolecular crystal structure in high-performance OPVs is related to an optimum molecular packing, which is influenced by the PPVTV:PCBM blending ratio, side-chain length, and molecular weight of the PPVTV polymer. Improved charge transport in PPVTV:PCBM bimolecular crystals leads to a fast sweep out of charges and thus suppression of nongeminate recombination under the operating conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-344
Number of pages8
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA , Weinheim.


  • Absorption
  • Electron transfer
  • Polymers
  • Thin films
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Energy(all)


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