Auto-Ignition of Iso-Stoichiometric Blends of Gasoline-Ethanol-Methanol (GEM) in SI, HCCI and CI Combustion Modes

Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Mani Sarathy, Jeroen Feijs, Kai Morganti, Gustav Nyrenstedt, Bengt Johansson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

15 Scopus citations


Gasoline-ethanol-methanol (GEM) blends, with constant stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (iso-stoichiometric blending rule) and equivalent to binary gasoline-ethanol blends (E2, E5, E10 and E15 in % vol.), were defined to investigate the effect of methanol and combined mixtures of ethanol and methanol when blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) Gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.2, 73.8 and 83.9, respectively, and their corresponding Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used under Spark Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited modes. An ignition quality tester was utilized in the Compression Ignition mode. One of the promising properties of GEM blends, which are derived using the iso-stoichiometric blending rule, is that they maintain a constant octane number, which has led to the introduction of methanol as a drop-in fuel to supplement bio-derived ethanol. A constant RON/HCCI fuel number/derived Research octane number property was observed in all three combustion modes for high RON fuels, but for low RON fuels, the iso-stoichiometric blending rule for constant octane number did not appear to be valid. The chemical composition and octane number of the base fuel also influenced the behavior of the GEM blends under different conditions.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSAE Technical Paper Series
PublisherSAE International
StatePublished - Mar 28 2017

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the Clean Combustion Research Lab for providing the engine experiment facilities. The published paper was supported by competitive research funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and funds from Saudi Aramco under the FUELCOM program. The author also wishes to thank Mohamd Almansour and Ahmad Radhwan at the Saudi Aramco Research & Development Center for preparing and analyzing the test fuels. I would also like to thanks Kate McClintock for correcting the English Language.


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