Architected poly(lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone)/halloysite nanotube composite scaffolds enabled by 3D printing for biomedical applications

Fahad Alam, Pawan Verma, Walaa Mohammad, Jeremy Teo, K. M. Varadarajan, S. Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations

Abstract

Herein, we report the physicochemical, thermal, mechanical and biological characteristics, including bioactivity, biodegradation and cytocompatibility of additive manufacturing-enabled novel nanocomposite scaffolds. The scaffolds comprise a blend of polylactic acid (PLA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) reinforced with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). The nanoengineered filaments were developed by melt blending, and the nanocomposite scaffolds were manufactured by fused filament fabrication. Uniform dispersion of HNTs in the PLA/PCL blend is revealed via scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical property loss due to the addition of PCL to realize a suitable biodegradation rate of PLA was fully recovered by the addition of HNTs. Bioactivity, as revealed by the fraction of apatite growth quantified from XRD analysis, was 5.4, 6.3, 6.8 and 7.1% for PLA, 3, 5 and 7 wt% HNT in PLA/PCL blend, respectively, evidencing enhancement in the bioactivity. The degradation rate, in terms of weight loss, was reduced from 4.6% (PLA) to 1.3% (PLA/PCL) upon addition of PCL, which gradually increased to 4.4% by the addition of HNTs (at 7 wt% HNT). The results suggest that the biodegradation rate, mechanical properties and biological characteristics, including cytocompatibility and cell adhesion, of the 3D printed, microarchitected PLA/PCL/HNT composite scaffolds can be tuned by an appropriate combination of HNT and PCL content in the PLA matrix, demonstrating their promise for bone replacement and regeneration applications. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14070-14083
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Materials Science
Volume56
Issue number25
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Generated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2023-09-23

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanical Engineering

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