Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

Thomas Marcussen, Simen R. Sandve, Lise Heier, Manuel Spannagl, Matthias Pfeifer, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Brande Wulff, Burkhard Steuernagel, Klaus F.X. Mayer, Odd Arne Olsen, Jane Rogers, Jaroslav Doležel, Curtis Pozniak, Kellye Eversole, Catherine Feuillet, Bikram Gill, Bernd Friebe, Adam J. Lukaszewski, Pierre Sourdille, Takashi R. EndoMarie Kubaláková, Jarmila Šíhalíková, Zdeňka Dubská, Jan Vrána, Romana Šperková, Hana Šimková, Melanie Febrer, Leah Clissold, Kirsten McLay, Kuldeep Singh, Parveen Chhuneja, Nagendra K. Singh, Jitendra Khurana, Eduard Akhunov, Frédéric Choulet, Adriana Alberti, Valérie Barbe, Patrick Wincker, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Fuminori Kobayashi, Takeshi Itoh, Takashi Matsumoto, Hiroaki Sakai, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Jianzhong Wu, Yasunari Ogihara, Hirokazu Handa, P. Ron Maclachlan, Andrew Sharpe, Darrin Klassen, David Edwards, Jacqueline Batley, Simen Rød Sandve, Sigbjørn Lien, Mario Caccamo, Sarah Ayling, Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez, Bernardo J. Clavijo, Jonathan Wright, Mihaela M. Martis, Martin Mascher, Jarrod Chapman, Jesse A. Poland, Uwe Scholz, Kerrie Barry, Robbie Waugh, Daniel S. Rokhsar, Gary J. Muehlbauer, Nils Stein, Heidrun Gundlach, Matthias Zytnicki, Véronique Jamilloux, Hadi Quesneville, Thomas Wicker, Primetta Faccioli, Moreno Colaiacovo, Antonio Michele Stanca, Hikmet Budak, Luigi Cattivelli, Natasha Glover, Lise Pingault, Etienne Paux, Sapna Sharma, Rudi Appels, Matthew Bellgard, Brett Chapman, Thomas Nussbaumer, Kai Christian Bader, Hélène Rimbert, Shichen Wang, Ron Knox, Andrzej Kilian, Michael Alaux, Françoise Alfama, Loïc Couderc, Nicolas Guilhot, Claire Viseux, Mikaël Loaec, Beat Keller, Sebastien Praud

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Abstract

The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalScience
Volume345
Issue number6194
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

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