Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) in deep geological formations, like saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas reservoirs, brings enormous potential for large-scale storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). The successful implementation of GCS requires a comprehensive risk assessment of the confinement of plumes and storage potential at each storage site. To better understand the integrity of the caprock after injecting CO2, it is necessary to develop robust and fast tools to evaluate the safe CO2 injection duration. This study applied deep learning (DL) techniques, such as fully connected neural networks, to predict the safe injection duration. A physics-based numerical reservoir simulator was used to simulate the movement of CO2 for 170 years following a 30-year CO2 injection period into a deep saline aquifer. The uncertainty variables were utilized, including petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, reservoir physical parameters such as temperature, salinity, thickness, and operational decision parameters such as injection rate and perforation depth. As mentioned earlier, the reservoir model was sampled using the Latin-Hypercube sampling approach to account for a wide range of parameters. Seven hundred twenty-two reservoir simulations were performed to create training, testing, and validation datasets. The DNN model was trained, and several executions were performed to arrive at the best model. After multiple realizations and function evaluations, the predicted results revealed that the three-layer FCNN model with thirty neurons in each layer could predict the safe injection duration of CO2 into deep saline formations. The DNN model showed an excellent prediction efficiency with the highest coefficient of determination factor of above 0.98 and AAPE of less than 1%. Also, the trained predictive models showed excellent agreement between the simulated ground truth and predicted trapping index, yet 300 times more computationally efficient than the latter. These findings indicate that the DNN-based model can support the numerical simulation as an alternative to a robust predictive tool for estimating the performance of CO2 in the subsurface and help monitor the storage potential at each part of the GCS project.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Day 1 Sun, February 19, 2023|
|State||Published - Mar 7 2023|
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-03-10
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): BAS/1/1351-01-01, BAS/1/1423-01-01, FCC/1/4491-22-01, URF/1/4074-01-01
Acknowledgements: B.Y. and Z.T. thanks KAUST for the Research Funding through the grant BAS/1/1423-01-01 and FCC/1/4491-22-01. S.S. and Z.T. thanks KAUST for the Research Funding through the grant BAS/1/1351-01-01 and URF/1/4074-01-01. The authors want to acknowledge the Computer Modeling Group for the academic license of CMG-GEM.