An inkjet-printed buoyant 3-D lagrangian sensor for real-time flood monitoring

Muhammad Fahad Farooqui, Christian G. Claudel, Atif Shamim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


A 3-D (cube-shaped) Lagrangian sensor, inkjet printed on a paper substrate, is presented for the first time. The sensor comprises a transmitter chip with a microcontroller completely embedded in the cube, along with a $1.5 \lambda_{0}$ dipole that is uniquely implemented on all the faces of the cube to achieve a near isotropic radiation pattern. The sensor has been designed to operate both in the air as well as water (half immersed) for real-time flood monitoring. The sensor weighs 1.8 gm and measures 13 mm $\times$ 13 mm $\times$ 13 mm, and each side of the cube corresponds to only $0.1 \lambda_{0}$ (at 2.4 GHz). The printed circuit board is also inkjet-printed on paper substrate to make the sensor light weight and buoyant. Issues related to the bending of inkjet-printed tracks and integration of the transmitter chip in the cube are discussed. The Lagrangian sensor is designed to operate in a wireless sensor network and field tests have confirmed that it can communicate up to a distance of 100 m while in the air and up to 50 m while half immersed in water. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3354-3359
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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