This study assessed spatiotemporal trends in daily monsoon precipitation extremes at seasonal and sub-seasonal scales (June, July, August, and September) and their links with atmospheric circulations over Pakistan. The study used observed precipitation data from fifty in-situ stations and reanalysis products from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) during 1981–2018. A suite of seven extreme precipitation indices and non-parametric statistical techniques were used to infer trends in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation indices. An increase in frequency and intensity of overall extreme indices was evident, with a maximum tendency in the country’s northwestern (z-score=>2.5), central, and eastern (z-score > 4) monsoon-dominant parts. The northern and southwestern parts of the country exhibited a slight decrease (z-score
KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-10-03
Acknowledgements: This study is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (42275028). We also acknowledge the Pakistan Meteorological Department for data provision, Rabdan Academy for the article processing charges (APC) payment, and ECMWF, and NCEP/NCAR for their reanalysis data.