Amino acid based surfactants for dry-cleaning with high-pressure carbon dioxide

M. J.E. Van Roosmalen*, G. F. Woerlee, G. J. Witkamp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The currently most used dry-cleaning solvent is perchloroethylene (PER). Carbon dioxide could be an ideal solvent to replace PER. Amino acid based surfactants have been studied for dry-cleaning with carbon dioxide. For the production of amino acid based surfactants, renewable, low-cost raw materials are used. Furthermore, these surfactants have a low toxicity, are biodegradable and not skin irritating. These characteristics make the amino acid based surfactants attractive for dry-cleaning with carbon dioxide. The amino acid based surfactants give good results for dry-cleaning with liquid CO2. The surfactant Amihope LL (N-lauroyl-L-lysine) gives the best cleaning-results. An important process parameter using this surfactant is the addition of water. The addition of water is required for sufficient removal of non-particulate soils. However, when no water is added to the system, there is a large increase in particulate soil removal. Therefore, a two-bath process is proposed. The first bath is for particulate soil removal and has optimal conditions for particulate soil removal; the second bath has optimal conditions for non-particulate soil removal. The two-bath process using Amihope LL gives excellent results: the result for particulate soil removal is 84% compared to the results for PER, the result for non-particulate soil removal is 98% compared to PER and the overall result is 92% compared to PER.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)243-254
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Supercritical Fluids
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Amihope LL (N-lauroyl-L-lysine)
  • Amino acid based surfactants
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Dry-cleaning
  • Process optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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