Additive manufacturing assisted van der Waals integration of 3D/3D hierarchically functional nanostructures

Jui-Han Fu, Ang-Yu Lu, Nathan J. Madden, Christine C. Wu, Yen-Chang Chen, Ming-Hui Chiu, Khalid Hattar, Jessica A. Krogstad, Stanley S. Chou, Lain-Jong Li, Jing Kong, Vincent Tung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Van der Waals (vdW) integration, in which pre-engineered two-dimensional building blocks are physically assembled together in a chosen sequence through weak vdW interactions, holds promise toward previously unattainable applications. However, when extended to create 3D/3D monoliths, the lack of physical bonding coupled with the inherent rigidity and surface roughness between 3D building blocks makes it challenging for broader implementation of composites, catalysis, and energy applications. Here we demonstrate that electrostatically exfoliated two-dimensional layered materials can be additively manufactured to create complex layouts with selectively engineered composition in both lateral and vertical directions. Subsequent room-temperature dewetting creates non-covalent hinges through folded edges to concurrently interlock and nanostructure the two-dimensional inks into 3D building blocks. The result is the 3D/3D vdW mono- and heterostructures that are mechanically robust, electrically conductive, electrochemically active over a broad pH range and even radiation tolerant in nature
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCommunications Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 15 2020

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): C0015, OSR- 2015-CRG4-2634, OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079
Acknowledgements: V.T., J.-H.F., and M.-H.C. are indebted to the support from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No: OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079. V.T. acknowledged the financial support from KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC). Characterization and fabrication of HER electrodes in this work were performed as User Proposals (#5067 and #5424) at the Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Raman spectroscopy was performed at the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC0004993. A.Y.L. and J.K. also acknowledge the support from the KAUST under contract (OSR- 2015-CRG4-2634) and the support from U.S. Army Research Office through the MIT Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (Grant No. 023674). N.J.M and J.A.K acknowledge support from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science under Award Number DE-SC0015894 and by a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) award. V.T. expresses his gratitude to Dr. Chang-Ming Jiang, Dr. Pin Lu, Wu Zhan, Vipawee Limsakoune, and Teresa L. Chen for the fruitful discussion in DROPS mechanisms and assistance in instrumentation. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525. The views expressed in the article do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. DOE or the United States Government


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