A two-dimensional cation-deficient Ti0.87O2 artificial protection layer for stable sodium metal anodes

Wenli Zhao, Zhen Cao, Zahra Bayhan, Hanfeng Liang, Yongjiu Lei, Long Chen, Mushtaq A. Dar, Zeyad Almutairi, Luigi Cavallo, Gang Huang*, Husam N. Alshareef*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The practical application of sodium (Na) metal batteries is still hampered by uncontrolled Na dendrite growth and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), which lead to poor cycling stability and even serious safety concerns. Here, we present a dendrite-free and highly stable Na metal anode via directly transferring a cation-deficient Ti0.87O2 nanosheet constructed artificial layer onto Na surface. Profiting from the sodiophilic nature and high Young's modulus, the Ti0.87O2 layer can seamlessly connect to the Na surface and avoid the layer fracture caused by Na volume changes. In addition, the existence of cation defects enables Ti0.87O2 layer with strong Na+ adsorption ability that pre-uniforms the Na+ flux. Further, the Ti0.87O2 protection layer has high ionic conductivity but poor electronic conductivity; this allows Na+ quasi self-diffusion but restricts Na plating under the protection layer. With these advantages, the Ti0.87O2 layer stabilizes the electrolyte/electrode interface and guarantees dendrite-free plating/stripping of Na. As a result, significantly improved performance of the symmetric batteries and Na3V2(PO4)3 based full cells has been obtained. Importantly, the Ti0.87O2 layer can also protect Li anodes and further enhance their performance. Our work presents a new versatile strategy that brings metal based anodes one step closer to being a viable technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101271
JournalMaterials Today Energy
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province ( BK20190688 ) and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). M.A.D. and Z.A. greatly acknowledge Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding research (Grant no RG#1440-115 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023


  • Batteries
  • Cation-deficient
  • Dendrite suppression
  • Na-metal anodes
  • TiO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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