A Time-Domain Volume Integral Equation Solver to Analyze Electromagnetic Scattering From Nonlinear Dielectric Objects

Sadeed Bin Sayed, Rui Chen*, Huseyin Arda Ulku, Hakan Bagci

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A time-domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from dielectric objects with Kerr nonlinearity. The nonlinear constitutive relation that relates electric flux and electric field induced in the scatterer is used as an auxiliary equation that complements TD-EFVIE. The ordinary differential equation (ODE) system that arises from TD-EFVIE's Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson (SWG)-based discretization is integrated in time using a predictor-corrector method for the unknown expansion coefficients of the electric field. Matrix systems that arise from the SWG-based discretization of the nonlinear constitutive relation and its inverse obtained using the Padé approximant are used to carry out explicit updates of the electric field and the electric flux expansion coefficients at the predictor and the corrector stages of the time integration method. The resulting explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme does not call for any Newton-like nonlinear solver and only requires solution of sparse and well-conditioned Gram matrix systems at every step. Numerical results show that the proposed explicit MOT-based TD-EFVIE solver is more accurate than the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method that is traditionally used for analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering from nonlinear objects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9255-9267
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1963-2012 IEEE.


  • Electric field volume integral equation (EFVIE)
  • Kerr nonlinearity
  • marching-on-in-time (MOT)
  • predictor-corrector scheme
  • transient analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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