A review on the solid–liquid–vapor phase equilibria of acid gases in methane

Hani Ababneh, Shaheen A. Al-Muhtaseb*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


In spite of the increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and their impact on the environment, the demand for natural/biogas will increase significantly in the coming few decades. To cover this demand, the global energy industry is continuously exploiting sour gas reserves located around the world. Nonetheless, sour gas has to be sweetened before the practical utilization of natural or biogas. The cryogenic separation technologies have emerged as a new technology to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S gases) from natural/biogas. The cryogenic separation produces less harmful gases, and can be less expensive to operate and maintain in comparison to the conventional technologies. To design cryogenic separation equipment, vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE), solid–liquid equilibrium (SLE), solid–vapor equilibrium (SVE), and solid–liquid–vapor equilibrium (SLVE) data for the corresponding binary systems (of CH4-CO2, CH4-H2S, and H2S-CO2) and ternary system (of CH4-H2S-CO2) are required. The main target of this article is to review the SLVE data for the acid gases (CO2 and H2S) in methane (CH4) as the main constituent of natural/biogas. It will address SLVE data for the binary systems of CH4-CO2, CH4-H2S and H2S-CO2 as well as the ternary system of CH4-H2S-CO2. It will not only address the available laboratory data, but it will also discuss, compare and evaluate the different models used to correlate/predict these data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)566-579
Number of pages14
JournalGreenhouse Gases: Science and Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology published by Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • binary/ternary mixture separation
  • cryogenic separation
  • freezing prediction
  • natural gas sweetening
  • solid phase formation
  • solid–liquid–vapor equilibrium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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