A Review of Current Standards and the Evolution of Histopathology Nomenclature for Laboratory Animals

Susan A Elmore, Robert Cardiff, Mark F Cesta, Georgios Gkoutos, Robert Hoehndorf, Charlotte M Keenan, Colin McKerlie, Paul N Schofield, John P Sundberg, Jerrold M Ward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The need for international collaboration in rodent pathology has evolved since the 1970s and was initially driven by the new field of toxicologic pathology. First initiated by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer for rodents, it has evolved to include pathology of the major species (rats, mice, guinea pigs, nonhuman primates, pigs, dogs, fish, rabbits) used in medical research, safety assessment, and mouse pathology. The collaborative effort today is driven by the needs of the regulatory agencies in multiple countries, and by needs of research involving genetically engineered animals, for "basic" research and for more translational preclinical models of human disease. These efforts led to the establishment of an international rodent pathology nomenclature program. Since that time, multiple collaborations for standardization of laboratory animal pathology nomenclature and diagnostic criteria have been developed, and just a few are described herein. Recently, approaches to a nomenclature that is amenable to sophisticated computation have been made available and implemented for large-scale programs in functional genomics and aging. Most terminologies continue to evolve as the science of human and veterinary pathology continues to develop, but standardization and successful implementation remain critical for scientific communication now as ever in the history of veterinary nosology.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-39
Number of pages11
JournalILAR Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 22 2018

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-03-30
Acknowledgements: For INHAND, in addition to the leaders of supporting societies, we appreciate the contributions from Drs. Wolfgang Kaufmann, Ian Pyrah, Julia Baker, Peter Mann, Alys Bradley, Matthew Jacobsen, Susanne Rittinghausen, Thomas Nolte, Christine Ruehl-Fehler, Rupert Kellner, John L. Vahle, Dawn G. Goodman, Emily Meseck, Ronald Herbert, Shim-mo Hayashi, Takanori Harada, and Katsuhiko Yoshizawa.

C.M. acknowledges the contributions from all members of the IMPC’s Morphology Work Group, appreciates and recognizes the effort and feedback from the entire IMPC, and especially thanks the Pathology Core Team and Informatics Team at The Centre for Phenogenomics for their database development and support. This work was supported by Government of Canada through Genome Canada and Ontario Genomics (OGI-051) (C.M.). P.N.S. acknowledges the support of the Commission of the European Community for Pathbase and MPATH QLRI-1999-CT-0320 and the continued contributions over its technical development from Michael Gruenberger and all the pathologists who have generously given their expertise and time over the years. R.H. acknowledges the support of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), and J.P.S. acknowledges support from the Ellison Medical Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health (CA34196, CA089713, and AG038070-05). For S.E. and M.C., this research was supported (in part) by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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