A photopaper-based low-cost, wideband wearable antenna for wireless body area network applications

Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Ashar Naveed, Muhammad Qasim Mehmood, Yehia Massoud*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


This study presents a low-cost, compact, flexible, and wideband wearable antenna for different wireless body area network (WBAN) band applications, covering medical body area network band of 2.4 GHz, industrial, scientific, and medical band of 2.45 GHz, WiMAX band of 3.5 GHz, and wireless local area network band of 5.2 GHz. The final antenna topology is obtained by hexagonal microstrip radiator patch fabricated on commercially available low-cost photo paper substrate and defected ground plane below the feed line acting as a partial ground to achieve a conformable structure wideband operation. The overall size of the fabricated antenna is 30 × 40 mm2 and yields a wide-bandwidth of 3 GHz (2.30–5.30 GHz), radiation efficiency of 84.35%, and the highest gain of 3.48 dBi at the centre frequency of 5.2 GHz, and minimum gain of 1.91 dBi at 2.45 GHz. Furthermore, our detailed numerical and experimental investigations involving specific absorption rate performance assessment and bending analysis revealed the proposed design's excellent robustness to both human body loading and structural deformation scenarios. Therefore, simulated and measured results strongly advocate that the proposed design has profound implications for flexible and body-worn devices in WBAN applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)962-970
Number of pages9
JournalIET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation
Issue number15
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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