We compare the oxidation state and molecular composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by varying the types and surface areas of inorganic seed aerosol that are used to promote the condensation of SOA-forming vapors. The oxidation state of α-pinene SOA is found to increase with inorganic seed surface area, likely a result of enhanced condensation of low-volatility organic compounds on particles versus deposition on the chamber wall. α-Pinene SOA is more highly oxygenated in the presence of sodium nitrate (SN) seed than ammonium sulfate seed. The relative abundance of semivolatile monomers and low-volatility dimer components that account for more than half of α-pinene SOA mass is not significantly affected by the composition of seed aerosol. Enhanced uptake of highly oxidized small carboxylic acids onto SN seed particles is observed, which could potentially explain the observed higher SOA oxidation state in the presence of SN seed aerosol. Overall, our results demonstrate that a combined effect of seed aerosol composition and surface area leads to an increase in the O:C atomic ratio of α-pinene SOA by as much as a factor of 2.